What is scope insensitivity? How does the failure to visualize large quantities affect charitable decision-making? Scope insensitivity (also known as scope neglect) is a cognitive bias that occurs when a problem is sized up based on its mental image as opposed to its actual complexity or scope. The scope insensitivity bias is central to charitable decision-making as it affects how much people are willing to pay to help a cause. Read on to learn about scope insensitivity and its implications for charitable decision-making.
Who was David Goggins’ father? How did his father affect David’s outlook and choices? David Goggins’ father was abusive and forced David to work long hours at the family business. Due to his father’s treatment, David was stressed, sleep-deprived, and struggled in school. Read more about David Goggins’ father and Goggins’ early life.
What is the difference between system 1 and system 2 thinking? What are the cognitive processes that underlie these two thinking modes? Psychologists often describe human minds as operating on two thinking modes: system 1 and system 2 thinking. System 1 governs unconscious thinking patterns that run without our conscious awareness. System 2, on the other hand, governs deliberation and conscious reasoning. Keep reading to learn about system 1 and system 2 thinking.
What is probabilistic thinking? How do probabilistic thinkers approach problems differently from an average person? Probabilistic thinking is essentially an approach to predicting an outcome of a situation or the likelihood of a future event. Most people tend to estimate probabilities in terms of “yes” or “no” options. In contrast, probabilistic thinkers think in terms of percentages. Keep reading to learn about the psychology of probabilistic thinking.
What are the defining characteristics of growth and fixed mindsets? What is the belief system behind each mindset? The concept of growth and fixed mindsets was developed by American psychologist Carol Dweck. People with a growth mindset believe that skill excellence and accomplishment are achieved through practice. In contrast, people with a fixed mindset attribute success to inborn abilities. Read about the characteristics of growth and fixed mindsets.
What makes a superforecaster? Are extraordinary prediction abilities a result of inborn intelligence or are they acquired through practice? A superforecaster is a person who makes highly accurate predictions of future events, as compared to the general public or experts. According to Tetlock, superforecasters are not necessarily off-the-charts geniuses. Rather, their forecasting success comes to methodology. Keep reading to learn about what makes a superforecaster.
How does intuitive thinking work? Is there a mechanism behind the way we arrive at intuitive, seemingly unexplainable insights or is it all just a fluke? Typically, we think about intuition as a “gut feeling.” However, intuitive thinking is not all that mysterious. Just because we can’t pinpoint the logical sequence of how we arrived at an insight, it doesn’t mean there’s no mechanism behind its workings. Here is how intuitive thinking works.
What is outside-in thinking? How does it relate to forecasting and prediction-making? Outside-in thinking is the way of perspective-taking that draws information from the broader context first. Only after taking into account the bigger picture, the particular details of a situation are considered. Read about outside-in thinking, as it relates to forecasting.
What is belief perseverance? Why do people find it so hard to give up their beliefs even in the face of contradictory evidence? Belief perseverance is the tendency to maintain a belief in spite of evidence that firmly contradicts it. It is difficult to overcome, especially when it comes to beliefs that are tied to our self-image. Read about the dangers of belief perseverance.
What does David Goggins’ “taking souls” quote refer to? How did this philosophy help him get through Hell Week in the Navy SEALs? When faced with Hell Week, Goggins adopted the idea of “taking souls,” or acknowledging your opponent and using your feelings about them as a way to fuel your motivation. David Goggins’ “taking souls” approach helped his group all get through Hell Week. Read more about David Goggins’ “taking souls” quote.